how does alcohol affect blood pressure

Alcohol can lead to low blood sugar shortly after you drink it and for hours afterward. The liver usually releases stored sugar to offset falling blood sugar levels. But if your liver is processing alcohol, it may not give your blood sugar the needed boost. Your age and other risk factors linked to heart and blood pressure health will ultimately aid your decision with your doctor about drinking.

Potential Biologic MechanismsUnderlying Alcohol-Induced BP Effects

But don’t expect any “all clears” for anything beyond light-moderate drinking. The type of alcoholic beverage also determines the impact on health, with red wine being considered healthy, for instance, due to the high polyphenol content. Most importantly, masked hypertension, where patients are hypertensive at home but not in the doctor’s office, is as serious a health risk as sustained hypertension.

Prolonged drinking can cause alcoholic cardiomyopathy

how does alcohol affect blood pressure

The increase in plasma renin results in increased production of angiotensin I (AI), which is converted to angiotensin II (AII) by angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE). The hormone AII is a potent vasoconstrictor and also stimulates aldosterone secretion from the adrenal gland, which increases sodium and water retention (Schrier 1999). As a result, peripheral resistance and blood volume increases leading to elevated arterial blood pressure in both healthy and hypertensive people. Other researchers have used genetic approaches (i.e., transgenic animals) to prevent ethanol-induced oxidative stress. One approach included overexpression of proteins such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which stimulates growth and cell proliferation and has antiapoptotic effects (see Zhang et al. 2014).

Description of studies

The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases without language, publication year, or publication status restrictions. Sign up for free and stay up to date on research advancements, health tips, current health topics, and expertise on managing health. A drink is 12 ounces (355 milliliters) of beer, 5 ounces (148 milliliters) of wine or 1.5 ounces (44 milliliters) of 80-proof distilled spirits.

  1. According to Chapter 10 of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (Higgins 2011), a funnel plot asymmetry test should not be used if all studies are of similar size.
  2. One approach included overexpression of proteins such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which stimulates growth and cell proliferation and has antiapoptotic effects (see Zhang et al. 2014).
  3. If you continue to drink, alcohol may reduce the effectiveness of these medications or even cause a serious medical interaction.
  4. Because women could be affected differently by alcohol than men, future RCTs in women are needed.

Berg 2005 published data only

We also found moderate‐certainty evidence showing that alcohol raises HR within the first six hours of consumption, regardless of the dose of alcohol. Moderate‐certainty evidence indicates an increase in heart rate after 7 to 12 hours and ≥ 13 hours after high‐dose alcohol consumption, low certainty of evidence was found for moderate dose of alcohol consumption. In the case of detection bias, we classified nine studies as having low risk of performance bias (Agewall 2000; Bau 2005; Bau 2011; Cheyne 2004; Dai 2002; Karatzi 2013; Narkiewicz 2000; Rosito 1999; Van De Borne 1997). All studies included an independent individual who was blinded to control and test groups to evaluate and analyse the data. One study ‐ Nishiwaki 2017 (a single‐blinded study) ‐ ensured participant blinding but not blinding of outcome assessors. Karatzi 2005, Mahmud 2002, Maule 1993, and Potter 1986 did not mention the method of blinding of outcome assessors.

how does alcohol affect blood pressure

Over time, drinking can also damage your frontal lobe, the part of the brain responsible for executive functions, like abstract reasoning, decision making, social behavior, and performance. Slurred speech, a key sign of intoxication, happens because alcohol reduces communication drooling: causes and treatments between your brain and body. This makes speech and coordination — think reaction time and balance — more difficult. Past guidance around alcohol use generally suggests a daily drink poses little risk of negative health effects — and might even offer a few health benefits.

Treating Alcohol-Related Hypertension

You probably already know that excessive drinking can affect you in more ways than one. We will contact the investigators of the studies via email, telephone call, letter or fax to request missing data (Higgins 2011. If investigators of the studies do not respond the study may be excluded. Both phases of cross‐over trials could lead to some unit of analysis issues. We will deal with these as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and only pool them with the other trials if appropriate and using generic inverse variance. N values will be adjusted to avoid double‐counting of participants in both phases of cross‐over trials.

how does alcohol affect blood pressure

There is evidence that reducing alcohol intake can help lower blood pressure in those suffering from hypertension and even prevent its development. It is recommended that there should be at least 10 studies reporting each of the subgroups in question. Among the 32 included studies, only four drug addiction substance use disorder symptoms and causes studies included hypertensive participants (Kawano 1992; Kawano 2000; Kojima 1993; Foppa 2002). So, it was not appropriate to conduct a separate meta‐analysis based on that population. We did not identify enough studies to construct a funnel plot for the outcomes under low doses of alcohol.

For times greater than 13 hours, high doses of alcohol consumption increased blood pressure. Low, moderate, and high alcohol consumption increased heart rate within the first six hours. High alcohol consumption also increased heart rate from 7 to 12 hours and after 13 hours.

Research indicates that different types of tea may lower blood pressure. Sign up to our fortnightly Heart Matters newsletter to receive healthy recipes, new activity ideas, and expert tips for managing your health. Dr. Liji Thomas is alcohol use disorder symptoms and causes an OB-GYN, who graduated from the Government Medical College, University of Calicut, Kerala, in 2001. Liji practiced as a full-time consultant in obstetrics/gynecology in a private hospital for a few years following her graduation.

This combination of higher fluid levels in the body and smaller blood vessels increases blood pressure. When the SNS gets activated by alcohol, it can increase heart rates and constrict blood vessels. Prolonged activation of the SNS can contribute to health issues like high blood pressure. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports a correlation between alcohol consumption and various short- and long-term health risks. A 2018 study showed that no amount of alcohol is considered safe, because its risks lead to a loss of healthy life. Sara Tasnim (ST) and Chantel Tang (CT) drafted the protocol with help from JMW.

The best way of knowing if there’s a problem is to have your blood pressure measured. You can have this done at your GP surgery, some local pharmacies, at your NHS Health Check or you can buy a reliable blood pressure monitor from the pharmacist. American Addiction Centers (AAC) is committed to delivering original, truthful, accurate, unbiased, and medically current information. We strive to create content that is clear, concise, and easy to understand. Long-term alcohol use can change your brain’s wiring in much more significant ways. Your body breaks alcohol down into a chemical called acetaldehyde, which damages your DNA.

Medium‐dose alcohol decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 5.6 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 4 mmHg within the first six hours of consumption. We reviewed available evidence about the short‐term effects of different doses of alcoholic drinks compared to non‐alcoholic drinks on blood pressure and heart rate in adults (≥ 18 years) with both normal and raised blood pressure. Researchers were unable to study in-depth the relationship between age, blood pressure, and alcohol intake. There were risks for misclassifications, and it is possible that some participants changed alcohol consumption amounts during the follow-up time. The study also didn’t look at how different types of alcohol influenced blood pressure. Some data relied on self-reporting; further data could include more diverse samples.

Experts recommend avoiding excessive amounts of alcohol if you have diabetes or hypoglycemia. A damaged pancreas can also prevent your body from producing enough insulin to use sugar. Here’s a breakdown of alcohol’s effects on your internal organs and body processes. These effects might not last very long, but that doesn’t make them insignificant. Impulsiveness, loss of coordination, and changes in mood can affect your judgment and behavior and contribute to more far-reaching effects, including accidents, injuries, and decisions you later regret. Dehydration-related effects, like nausea, headache, and dizziness, might not appear for a few hours, and they can also depend on what you drink, how much you drink, and if you also drink water.

Kimberly Goad is a New York-based journalist who has covered health for some of the nation’s top consumer publications. Her work has appeared in Women’s Health, Men’s Health and Reader’s Digest.Dr. Merle Myerson is a board-certified cardiologist with specialties in sports medicine, lipids, women’s health and prevention of cardiovascular disease. The proportion of cardiomyopathy cases attributable to alcohol abuse has ranged from 23 to 40 percent (Piano and Phillips 2014).